It is important and culturally appropriate that we acknowledge the spirits of the Ancestors, Elders, Traditional Owners and contemporary custodians from the Nations of Kulin, Melbourne, Wathaurung, Ballarat, Darug, Strathfield, Cammeraygal, North Sydney, Yagarra and Turbal Nations Brisbane, Kaurna in Adelaide and Ngunnawal, Canberra. We are doing this not as an act of political correctness but as one which connects us all to ourselves, to each other and to Country itself. We do this as a means through Story to connect us to an Australian history that is hundreds of thousands of years old.
I was thinking about when I supervised a pre-service teacher during her professional experience. She was teaching some units on the history of Australian fashion. She had done a lot of work, she was creative and she engaged the students in her lessons. At the end of a couple of lessons we discussed what she did. I told her I appreciated the work that she had put into the lessons and her enthusiasm. I asked her a question: given the lessons were on the history of Australian fashion why didn’t she have any Aboriginal content? She looked at me as if I was from mars. The next time I saw her she said to me “the students did them last term”. The implication was that the students were taught a bit about Aboriginal history in a general history unit, and that this was enough. A further implied question was how could you include Aboriginal perspectives in a unit on the history of Australian fashion? I asked, how can you not?
Imagine how engaging this unit could have been if the pre-service teacher had looked at the different ‘fashion’ that existed in the Country the school was located in prior to colonization? This would look at the geography, climate, flora and fauna and how these were engaged in people’s fashion: for example people from the Awabakal Nation around Newcastle in NSW had possum cloaks. Why? As the unit progressed a reference could have been made to changes of dress with colonization, the impact of missions and more recently contemporary designers such as Bronwyn Bancroft. All these threads woven and storyed as the rest of the material was.
Indigenous perspectives can be stories and information about Indigenous cultures, and peoples. It is a way that superficially and without context provides information. It becomes a way of marking what is exotic. It doesn’t connect to a bigger picture. Indigenous Knowledge is something different. Indigenous knowledge has more depth.
There is not one ‘set’ of Indigenous knowledge. I like to use the term Indigenous Knowings. This helps us to differentiate between two very different concepts. Indigenous Knowings are the ways Aboriginal peoples in Australia view the world, relate to the world, and are a part of the world. This is different to western knowledge. It is not better than and it is not inferior to Western knowledge. It is just conceptually different and this impacts on how people respond to and create things.
Indigenous Knowings are complex and they evolve from Country where everything is alive; people rocks, trees, stars, waterways and so on. People or humans become a part of a web of relationships and connections with everything else that is alive. Every element has a language and speaks to each other. Country is more than what Bawaka et al describe as a ‘passive backdrop to human experience’. Therefore, Indigenous Knowings are constant, in states of flux, they are relational, transformative and exist on and through waves of energy, spirit. Indigenous Knowings are about process and action. Indigenous Knowings are like patterns, patterns within patterns, where the heart cannot be disengaged from the intellect.
Well, when we add Indigenous perspectives we graft on some understanding about Aboriginal peoples, our cultures and/or histories. What we don’t do is give this information depth and context. For example, if I am teaching a class about Australian art and I have a bit of information about dot painting. I may feel satisfied that I have added an Aboriginal perspective. But, how does this, how does dot painting relate to the role and place of art, communication, literacy, spirit connection, Country in Indigenous Knowings and so on. In this instance my teaching presentation is about dot painting and by presenting this in this way I am saying Aboriginal people paint and they use dots. This is not the case. I haven’t given a context or provided the bigger picture. I am saying my understanding and interpretation of art is the same as that of western understanding of art knowledge and purpose. I am using my lens as a non-Indigenous educator to teach about Indigenous ‘art’ by adding a perspective which engages dot painting.
Indigenous Knowings involve relationality and the sensory engagement of all living beings. Concepts of story and storying, time and space are as a result vastly different and impact on the way we respond to and create information.
Indigenous Knowings are like patterns because everything is interconnected and dependent on each other. A dynamic interplay operates between relationships. Human and non-human inform and are informed by the many diverse languages spoken between all and each of these entities. Indigenous Knowings like a pattern have many different threads and they all come in different colors and shapes, but all and each are connected to and have a relationship with each other. Think about looking at a woven rug for example or a basket. When you stand close you can focus on a single thread. As you move further away you see how the threads create the whole pattern. The whole is more than the sum of its parts. The whole exits in all its parts.
All learning is shaped by the broader nexus of connections that is the world. Locating the self in this nexus, as an equal partner removes any distance in creation.
Indigenous storying is not about finding a right answer, it is about opening up and compiling a bundle of possibilities.
In academia, knowledge is ‘open’. Knowledge is published and public. This is not always the case in Indigenous cultures. Some Knowings are public, but all Knowings are earned dependent on someone’s relationships with Country. Some Knowings are known to a few where Elders are the custodians of most.
Western knowledge compartmentalises knowledge into disciplines. To understand the world is to stand apart from it and to disconnect from surrounding relationships. Humans are privileged but must remain emotionally distant in order to create knowledge. Time and space are linear and are tied to the idea of - more knowledge equates to progress, civilisation and wealth.
Let’s share a story: let’s look at the’ wheel’. Western knowledge values the wheel in terms of resources and material wealth through its connection to the progress of western civilisation. Aboriginal Australians value the wheel in terms of its connection to the tree that it was made from. The wheel is connected to the death of the tree and all associated relationships and connections.
Accept these world views as different. Be nourished by the difference and grow our perspectives in what and how we teach.
A lot of people feel this … because they are disconnected. When we understand the whole story rather than the bits of a story, and we see the bits in isolation, then this is the way this presents. We need to understand the whole story.
There is a space in between these world views and it is possible to not only bridge the gulf between them but to be nourished by and nourish each world view.
Embedding Indigenous Knowings adds depth of understanding to all of our student’s knowledge and experience. To understand the wheel or even the history of Australian fashion through the embedding of Indigenous Knowings nourishes our spirits as Australians. We are given a bundle of possibilities to identify with. This process, this action engages all of us in connecting to Country, to our space and place in this ancient and timeless land. It helps all of us to better shape our identity as Australians. We are all a part of this Country’s Dreaming.
Country, B. Wright, S., Suchet-Pearson, S., Lloyd, K., Burarrwanga, L., Ganambarr, R., Ganambarr-Stubbs, M., & Maymuru, D. (2015). Working with and learning from Country: decentring human author-ity. cultural geographies, 22(2),
Hokari, M. (2000). History Happening in/between Body and Place: Journey to the Aboriginal Way of Historical Practice. Habitus: A Sense of Place, (p. 2). Perth.
King, T. (2003). The truth about stories. A native narrative. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press
Morgan, S., Mia,T., & Kwaymullina, B. (Eds) 2008. Heartsick for country. Stories of love, spirit and creation. North Fremantle, WA: Fremantle Press.
Page last updated: 2018-05-23
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